Guitar Notes

BOOK: The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Music Theory

Slides:  https://photos.app.goo.gl/ep8rJ8FFBy2hqeEo6

Notes: 

  • Lesson 1
    • Musical Alphabet has 12 notes: A to G (BC and EF are half steps apart)
    • Notes A to G which are in all, 6 steps apart, as BC and EF are half step apart each, while all other notes are 1 step apart
    • 1 fret = 0.5 step
    • # Sharp, b Flat
  • Lesson 2
    • Choose the 7 notes for your  Major scale/key/MODE using WWHWWWH pattern. A major scale is one’s choice of selected notes from the whole alphabet of 12 notes for their composition.
    • Each scale will have one of each letter from A to G and only the # or b will distinguish the scales
  • Lesson 3
    • Circle of 4ths/5ths (Guitar is tuned in 4ths as well) organizes all scales in a circle
    • The next note in the circle is the 4th note in the scale of previous note Eg. in Scale of C, F is the 4th note and hence is next to C in the circle (anticlockwise)
    • Acronym to learn is : 
      • C for circle
      • F  for Fourths
      • BEAD (flat)
      • G
    • The handy chart for remembering the order of placement of sharps and flats is: 
      • #: F C G D A E B
      • b: B E A D G C F
    • To read this, let’s take  the scale of F. It has 1 flat, so pick the first flat from the flat Bb (ie B flat)
    • For B scale, we know it has 2 flats (as it is 2nd in the anti clock circle order CFBEADG, starting with C having 0 flats, F having 1 and B has 2 and so on) so pick first 2 flats from flat list ie Bb and Eb
    • It’s an easy way to recollect how many and which flat or sharp notes are present in any key/scale
  • Lesson 4
    • Triad is a 3 note chord
    • We take notes from the major scales and put them together in triads to get different types of chords
    • These are the most common chords: 
      • Major Chord: 1 3 5
      • Minor Chord: 1 b3 5
      • Diminished Chord: 1 b3 b5
    • So for G scale, which has notes: GABCDEF#G, the chords are: 
      • Major Chord: G B D
      • Minor Chord: G bB D
      • Diminished Chord: G bB bD
    • To play the G Major chord on Guitar, ie GBD notes, here’s what you do: 
      • Play G on 6th String (ie bottom ie lowest pitch)
        • The 6th string of Guitar is tuned to E
        • We know that E to G is 1.5 steps so count it out on the frets knowing that each fret is half step, so 
          • 1st fret on 6th string ie E would be half step above E ie F
          • 2nd fret would be F#
          • 3rd fret would be G note, so put finger on 3rd fret of 6th string
      • Play B on 5th String
        • The 5th string of Guitar is tuned to A
        • We know that A to B is 1 step so count it out on the frets knowing that each fret is half step, so B on 5th string is with finger on 2nd fret
      • Play D on 4th String
        • 4th string is already tuned to D, so nothing needs to be pressed on it
      • Play Root (ie G) on 1st String ie Highest Pitch
        • Again, 3rd fret on the 1st string that’s tuned to High E  ie E at higher octave, will be G.
    • Chords have emotional appeal too…Major Chords represent joy and happiness while minor chords represent sadness/sombre
  • Lesson 5
    • Each note of the scale can be used as a root of the chord.
    • Above, we saw only the first letter of G scale ie G, being used for Major Chord ie 135 chord.
    • But, each note of G scale ie GABCDEF#G can be used as root and hence have the 1,3,5 counting started from it. For instance, with A as root, A is index 1, C is 3 and E as 5, so the chord becomes : ACE
    • Next, to figure out if ACE is major or minor chord, we need to compare it to it’s own Key ( ie that scale where it’s the actual root)
    • From the Circle of 4 chart above, we know that key/scale of A is 
      4rd in the circle acronym CFBEADGC (note that for sharp, go anti clock ie read left to right, but for normal, read right to left) and hence has 3 sharps in it, and from the sharp acronym, #: F C G D A E B, we can read out first 3 ie F,C and G as sharp notes
    • Now, come back to the ACE chord and check which versions of A, C and E does A scale have. We know it has C in C# form, so this chord is actually 1 3# 5 form and hence a minor chord. Hence, this is A Minor chord
    • Repeat this for all notes of the scale and you’ll end up with all chords that go together ie are complementary chords and hence sound well when played together in a piece of music
    • Hence, for G scale, we get the following chords:
      1. G Major
      2. A Minor
      3. B Minor
      4. C Major
      5. D Major 
      6. E Minor
      7. F Diminished
    • Note, that the order of Major and Minor remains the same for every scale ie alternate of major and minor, ending with diminished
    • So if someone says they’re playing a 1, 4, 5 chord progression in key of G, that means they’re playing G major,  C major and D major chords per above list
    • NOTE that technically, each Note has a Major and Minor Chord, so that gives us 12*2 = 24 chords. Now, we know that each scale has only 7 chords (each note of the scale forms a chord using 135 pattern)…That means, only 7 out of 24 chords go together in a composition, and the scale decides which 7 chords those are.

  • Types of Acoustic Guitar
    • There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar:
      • the classical guitar (nylon-string guitar)
      • the steel-string acoustic guitar,
      • the archtop guitar, which is sometimes called a “jazz guitar”
  • Strumming Pattern
    • 5  basic patterns
    • Upstroke may not pick all 6 strings…the top 4 or 5 will do
  • Improve Your Guitar Strumming
    • Count down strokes as real nos. and upstrokes as “and”, so go “1 and 2 and” instead of “Down Up Down..”
    • Down strums always happen on the beat and up strokes are off the beat. Use feet to track the beat if internal number counting doesn’t work well.
    • Focus on what strings are strum in each down and upstroke and change that for dynamics and accents
    • keep a steady tempo with steady internal metronome
    • switch notes on upstroke for steady transitions
  • Types of Pics
    • Shape
    • Thickness
      • Thin: .3 to .6 mm
      • Std: .6 to .8 mm
      • Thick: >.8
        • More dynamic and louder sound
    • Material
    • Texture
      • Cellulose
      • Nylon
      • Gater
    • Pick stamping machine: Cut out pics from credit card etc.
  • Rhythm v Lead Guitar
    • Rhythm: Strumming Chords
      • Don’t touch the guitar with strumming hand
    • Lead: Picking Single Notes
      • Have the strumming wrist touch and rest on the guitar 
  • Holding the pick
    • Selecting the pick
      • Pick out of the side of your thumb:
        • Capture1 Capture-1
    • Preferably hold right handed
    • Palm on top of bridge
    • hold down with tips of fingers so that they arch
    • pad of thumb on back
    • Hold the pick pointing parallel to index finger and perpendicular to thumb
    • When you fret, be right behind the actual fret and not over it
    • hold the guitar vertical and not tilting. To look at your hands, look over the guitar
    • strum with wrist and not elbow
  • Playing Chords
    • Hold down with arch of finger with just enough pressure to get the right sound and not too hard.
  • Tuning
    • Tune the guitar before every play
    • App:
      • Guitar Tuna
        • Too Low indication means turn anticlockwise and vice versa
    • Instructions
      • Anticlockwise: Increases pitch (Typical use case)
      • Clockwise: Decreases pitch
      • Always start tuning anticlockwise if app shows it as out of pitch
  • Chord Chart
  • How a guitar works
    • Standard guitar tuning, starting from the thickest, lowest-pitched string (the 6th string) at the top of neck is: E – A – D – G – B – E –
    • The high E string—the thinnest, highest-pitched string at the bottom of the neck—is known as the 1st string and all others follow suit.
    • Shorter strings have higher frequency and therefore higher pitch. … Tension refers to how tightly the string is stretched. Tightening the string gives it a higher frequency while loosening it lowers the frequency.
    • The order of guitar strings from Low to High is: E, A, D, G, B, E (Low E & a High E) I nice way to remember this is with the acronym: Eddie Ate Dynamite, Good Bye Eddie!!
    • The fifth string (A2) is tuned to 110 Hz, exactly two octaves below the standard orchestral reference pitch of 440 Hz (A440)
    • Things that vibrate quickly make small waves in the air, and that sounds to you like a highpitched note. Things that vibrate slowly make longer waves in the air, that sound to you like a lowpitched note.
    • a thicker string would produce a smaller frequency than a thinner one, provided the tensions are equal.
    • High pitch sound is a sound which has a high frequency.
  • Ever wonder why the “standard” tuning of a guitar is EADGBE?
    • Guitars, are typically tuned in a series of ascending perfect fourths and a single major third. To be exact, from low to high, standard guitar tuning is EADGBE—three intervals of a fourth (low E to A, A to D and D to G), followed by a major third (G to B), followed by one more fourth (B to the high E).
    • The reason? It’s simultaneously musically convenient and physically comfortable, a conclusion players came to a few hundred years ago. The aim was to create a tuning that would ease the transition between fingering simple chords and playing common scales, minimizing fret-hand movement.
  • Reading the chord chart
    • Before strumming, pick each string individually to make sure it sounds right and not coarse.
    • The Top thick E string is referred to as bottom string.
    • Chord Diagram resembles the neck of the guitar with:
      • Nut at the top
      • X axis represents Strings in order: E A D G B Em
      • Y axis represents Frets
      • Numbers represent Fingers:
        • 1: Index
        • 2: Middle
        • 3: Ring
        • 4: Pinky
      • Playing
        • X: Don’t play that string
        • O: Open String ie Let the string ring, when stringing, without any fingers on any fret for that string
    • Reading Chords: D chord
      • Capture.PNG
      • Strings are harder to count as you can’t see them from top when playing, so it’s better to not have to count them repeatedly
      • Hence, count them only once:
        • Naturally, move left to right on the chord chart and you’ll see that 4th string has first finger on 2nd fret. Put the finger down after counting the 4th string from top with same finger(don’t bend head over the guitar to count with you eyes)
        • Then move to 5th string and put 3rd finger down
        • Finally move to 6th string and put 2nd finger down.
  • Scale Map
    • A scale is played single notes  ie one note (ie one string) at a time. Whereas a chord is strung one chord at a time.
    • Hence in scale map there’s no need to cross out open strings which aren’t being played
  • Memorizing Chords
    • Mental snapshot
      • See how the had looks when holding down for the chord
        • Have the hand memorize the shape of each chord instead of picking individual fingers and putting them on different strings at correct position. All fingers should move together to form the chord shape in unison.
    • Feel
      • Feel the widths of different strings to be able to identify with feeling alone
    • Repetition for Muscle memory
      • Repeat same chord multiple times
    • Target Finger
      • For open chords like Amaj, identify one finger position (closest to fret) and build the chord from there on. Eg. target ie start with Pinkie on 2nd fret for Amaj and then other fingers will fall in place.
    • Leverage Fret visiblity
      • You won’t be able to see the strings while playing but you can see the fret from the top. Use that to identify which fret to put the target finger at.
      • Next feel the fret with finger and place it right next to it on the right string (identified using string width)
  • Transition Tips
    • Practice movement of each finger individually when transitioning from one chord to another
    • Use open string (Ehigh or B) or stringing pause to transition between chords
  • Playing Songs
  • Beats and Bars
    • 4 beats in a bar
  • Guitar Chords and Scales – The Bigger Picture
  • Determining chord progressions in a song
  • Learn all notes on all frets and all strings
  • The CAGED System amd video
    • Acronym for finding chord shapes on the fretboard
    • So to start with the C Chord,
      • C: first play C normally, the open chord
      • A: Then 2 frets down the neck, play A chord, and that’ll be a C
      • G: Then, G shape played further down the neck will also be C
      • E, D: Same logic….
    • Hence, we’re able to play any chord in the shape of any other chord by just changing the position of the chord on the fretboard…The CAGED acronym just gives us the order in which the chords are to be played along the neck
    • The intention of this is just so that you can play the C chord in different pitches when needed and in case of difficult transitions, choose whichever version of C is easier
  • Memorise Chords
  • The chromatic scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below its adjacent pitches. As a result, in 12-tone equal temperament (the most common temperament in Western music), the chromatic scale covers all 12 of the available pitches. Thus, there is only one chromatic scale.
  • Chord theory
    • In the cases there we only have a letter, such as C, it’s a common major chord. A major chord consists of three notes: 1st, 3rd and the 5th notes in the scale. In which scale, you may ask. In the C major scale we have:C – D – E – F – G – A – B
    • Flattening a Note means lowering it by half a step, so C# flattened becomes C and so on. Note that a Minor chord is simply a Major chord with its 3rd flattened ie ACE is a Minor Chord as scale of A has C#, so it needs to be flattened to give C to form ACE Chord.
    • So for a C major chord we can locate the 1st, 3rd and 5th as C, E and G. Sometimes we find chords with names such as Cm, Dm and Em. The “m” stands for minor and in a minor chord we have three notes: 1st, 3rd minor and 5th. The notes in Cm are C, Eb (E flat) and G.
    • You may ask how it comes that we only have three notes in a C major chord when you have learned to strum five strings playing this chord:
    • The reason is the instrument. The notes are ordered less symmetrical on the guitar’s fretboard opposed to the piano keyboard. Another reason is that musical context differs between piano and guitar: you cannot play the harmony with your left hand and the melody with your right hand simultaneously on the guitar. Therefore, we don’t need to worry about too many notes being played at the same time.
    • As you can see in the diagram above, there are five notes played together in a C major chord, these are: C (5th string) , E (4th string), G (3rd string, played open), C (2nd string) and E (1st string, played open). It’s the most practical way to play the open C chord.
    • In chords, we often find numbers after the letters: C5, C7, and C9 to list a few. In a C5 chord (also called power chord), we only have two notes: the 1st and the 5th. That’s pretty unproblematic. Therefore, the C5 consist of C and G.
    • Minor and Major are names of triad chords that follow the 2/1.5 and 1.5/2 step ratio between their triad notes.
    • Flat (b) is notations for notes in 12 note chromatic spectrum to make sure each scale has all letters. Eg. A# can be read as Bb
    • Sharp (#) is real note identifier in chromatic spectrum like C#, D# etc.
  • Major Chords (self notes) (2/1.5)
    • Note that because the notes repeat on the fretboard, there can be multiple playing patterns for each chord. Just ensure that all the notes of the chord are present  in the pattern. Below playing pattern is from the standard chord chart for the major and minor chords
    • The basic major chords are often written with single letters as below. So the difference between C and C Major is, in this context, none.
    • There is in total twelve different basic major chords, one for every pitch. Less common are the other 5 sharp ones: A#M, C#M etc. 
    • There is in total twelve different basic major chords, one for every pitch. Less common is the other 5 like A#M, C#M etc.
    • Theory of the major chords
      A basic major chord always consists of three notes (or pitches). But since the guitar consists of six strings, some of the notes are unavoidably duplicated. The reason for this being the case sometimes and sometimes not is once again the instrument and its tuning. The G major is played on six strings, whereas the D chord is played on four only. In the case of D major, the cause is that the root note D, that should be played as the bass note, can’t be found on the first three frets.
    • OCP (0pen Chord Pattern) ():
    • TIPS TO LEARN CHORD SHAPES: 
      • There are only 4 shapes to learn for all open and bar chords: 
        1. Letter A Shape with longer right leg: EM
          • All Major Bar Chords in EM shape
          • Am (move EM 1 string down)
            • All Minor Bar Chords in Am shape
          • Em (remove 1 finger)
            • All Minor Bar Chords in Em shape
          • FM (bar chord in EM shape)
          • Fm (bar chord in Em shape)
        2. Letter A Shape with longer left leg: GM 
          • CM (remove left leg and extend Right leg of A)
        3. Left Leg of Letter A Shape: AM
          • All Major Bar Chords in AM shape
        4. Inverted A: DM
    • Even more concise way to remember is : Full A shape is GM with longer left leg and EM with longer right leg. D is inverted A and A  note itself is the left half of A.
    • Learning all chords from GM
      • GM (play 6 strings)
        • Put 3 and 4 on G ie First Dot on fret that represents G on low and high string
        • Then put 2 on down and left ie B on A string
        • 3>2 so 3 is higher so 2 hates 3 so gap
      • CM (play 5 strings)
        • Genetically, C pairs with G in DNA as well
        • 2 3 shape same as in GM 
        • 1 on C (only way to make C on leftover strings 1 to 4 is on B string )(note that in G it was B on A chord)
      • FM (only 4 strings)
        • Same shape as CM except 1 string down for 2 and 3 fingers
        • Flatten 1st finger to cover last string too
      • EM (All strings as E is both 1 and 6 string already)
        • When transitioning from GM to EM, keep 2BA as is, and move 3rd finger 2 strings down but on same fret as 2nd finger
        • With 1st finger, do G# on G
      • Em (All strings as E is both 1 and 6 string already)
        • Same as EM except remove 1st finger 
      • DM (play 4 strings as D is 4th string)
        • 1 and 2 fingers on 3 and 1 string on 2nd fret
        • 3rd finger on 3rd fret b/w 1 and 2 finger strings
        • 1<2 but 1  higher, so 1 loves 2 so close. 2 and 3 always have gap since GM
      •  AM (only 5 strings as A is 5th string)
        • Related to D
        • 1,2,3 fingers on 2nd fret starting with D ie 4th string
        • ANOTHER WAY TO REMEMBER D AND A TOGETHER IS THAT in both chords, 1 and 2 fingers are together (ie 1 string apart in A and 2 in D) with 1<2 but still 1 above 2 so close, except that in AM 1 is on 3rd string and in DM, 1 is on 4th..
        •  
      • Am (only 5 strings as A is 5th string)
        • Same as EM except move 1st finger 1 string down
  • CHORD CHART 
    • A
      • Notes: A C# E 
      • Playing Pattern: X A E A C# E
      • OCP:  X A 1ED 2AG 3C#B E
        • Shaped like edge of A
        • All 3 fingers are on the same fret
    • B
      • Notes: B D# F#
      • Playing Pattern: X X F# B D# F#
      • OCP: bar chord in AM shape
    •  C
      • Notes: C E G
      • Playing Pattern: X C E G C E
      • OCF: X 3CA 2ED G0 1CB E
        • 2 3 shape same as in GM 
        • 1 on C (only way to make C on leftover strings 1 to 4 is on B string )(note that in G it was B on A chord)
    • D
      • Notes: D F# A
      • Playing Pattern: X X D A D F#
      • OCF: X X DO 1AG 3DB 2F#E
        • 2 3 are in same fret
        • D shaped
    • E
      • Notes: E G# B
      • Playing Pattern: E B E G# B E
      • OCP: EO 2BA 3ED 1G#G BO EO
        • One way of rationalizing is that we need 3 notes, E, B and G# of which B and E are already open strings
        • So all we need is G# which is easiest to play on G String, so immediately put 1st finger on 1st fret of G string for G#
        • Now, we can play this chord on 1,2 and 3 string with just 1 finger, but we still have 2 fingers, finger 2 and 3 free and so why not use it to repeat the nodes, making the chord sound louder and richer. Hence use 2 and 3 fingers to easily play B and E on string A and D respectively.
    • F
      • Notes: F A C
      • Playing Pattern: X X F A C X
      • OCP:
        • Open chord
          • Exactly same shape as CM with 1 string down for the 2 and 3 fingers 
          • Play only the 4,3 and 2 strings on which you have fingers
        • bar chord in EM shape
    • G
      • Notes: G B D 
      • Playing Pattern: G B D G B G 
      • OCP: 3GE 2BA DO GO BO 4GE`  
        • Start by putting 3 and 4 on G ie First Dot on fret that represents G
        • Then put 2 on down and left ie B on A string
  • Minor Chords (self notes) (1.5/2)
    • These chord consist of the root note, a minor third and a fifth.
    • Minor root note followed by a “m” (for minor). Besides the basic minor chords there are other categories that also use minor in the name, and such are minor seventhminor ninth, minor eleventh and minor thirteenth.  
    • Some of the presented diagrams, primarily Cm, Fm, Bm, C#m/Dbm, D#m/Ebm, F#m/Gbm, are often played with other shapes (barre chords most of all) or with a capo. Therefore, you should check upon this and decide which way you prefer to play the chord.
    •  
    •  Am
      • Notes: A C E 
      • Playing Pattern: X A E A C E
      • OCP: X AO 2ED 3AG 1CB EO
        • Note that we need to change C# of A Major to C. We do this by moving it 1 fret back
        • For this the fingers have to change positions
        • End shape looks like full A
        • Another way to visualize it is that it’s the same shape as EM shape, but 1 string down
    • Bm
      • Notes: B D F#
      • Playing Pattern: X X F# B D F#
      • OCP:
        • Just change D# of B Major to D by moving it 1 fret back
        • Just move Am down 1 fret (with bar) for each of the next chords
        • OR play bar chord in Am shape
    •  Cm
      • Notes: C D# G
        • Playing Pattern: X C D# G X X
    • Dm
      • Notes: D F A
      • Playing Pattern: X X D A D F
    • Em
      • Notes: E G B
      • Playing Pattern: E B E G B E
      • OCP: EO 2BA 3ED GO BO EO
        • Note that this is same as EM shape with 1st finger free as we need to convert G# to G
    • Fm
      • Notes: F G# C
      • Playing Pattern: X X F G# C F
        • OCP: bar chord in Em shape
    • Gm
      • Notes: G A# D 
      • Playing Pattern: X X D A# D G
  • Chord progressions
  • Chord Formula
  • How Chords are Named
  • Chords are just stacked thirds
    • Think about it…The chord pattern of 1 3 5 is simply stacking third notes over one another ie stacking 3 over 1 and 5 over 3.
  • A major chord is 2/1.5 steps while a minor chord is 1.5/2 steps
    • 2 step between notes of a chord is called a Major Third (as chords are composed of intervals of third notes stacked over each other)
    • 1.5 step between notes of a chord is called a Minor Third
    • Notes that these 2 steps and 1.5 steps are wrt the chromatic scale (of 12 notes) and we get the same result on applying the 135 formula to the WWHWWWH formula
    • So in other words:
      • Major Chord = Major Third over Minor Third
      • Minor Chord = Minor Third over Major Third
      • Diminished Chord = Minor Third over Minor Third
    • In Every scale:
      • 1,4 and 5th chord is Major
      • 2, 3 and 6th chord is Minor
      • 7th ie Last chord is Diminished
  • Understand Intervals on Guitar
  • bar chords vs open chords
  • How to Play Minor 6 Chords on Guitar
  • Power Chords
    • A power chord is a movable chord shape that can be played on different frets up and down the fingerboard. Essentially, you only need to learn one shape and you can play just about any chord. Power chords are commonly used in rock, metal, and punk music.
  • What Is An Open Chord
    • A cord in which when played, one or more of the strings are being played without fingering them
  • Play all Chords in All Scales using Transposition
    • All scales are lined up in order simply one fret apart
    • Hence, just learn the chords in any one scale and transpose the same chord shape to the next fret to play that chord in a higher scale
    • Just remember that 1,4 and 5 chords of any major scale are major chords and 2, 3 and 6 are minor chords. Hence, for every scale first identify the root notes of that scale ie 1,2,3,4,5,6 using the 3 notes per string rule, and then bar chords of each note.
    • Then if you’re playing a chord sequence, 1-3-6 in say F# scale, and it sounds low to the singer, just move it to a higher scale like G# by moving the same chords 2 frets down.
  • Ear Training
    • Choose the right song for what you’re trying to learn
    • Visualize parts of the song and map it into parts like verse, chorus at zoomed out level first.
    • Then zoom into individual pieces and divide them into blocks and identify
      • chords in each block and
      • the chord progressions and
      • strumming pattern
      • Identify repetitions of chords and when repetitions end (which would mark the end of the block)
    • Identify chord
      • Listen to the same chord over an over in the song and try to map different chords on your guitar with what you heard
      • Don’t move ahead in the song until you’ve identified the chord
    • Play chords repeatedly to train the ear to identify each chord in the real world and figure out internally, the difference in each chord sound.
    • Also, use the context. For instance, in Rock Music, 90% chords are major, while in darker slower music, they’re Minor.
    • To identify if a chord is power, bar or open, first play all chords as power as it’s the easiest
  • Why can chords be transposed down the fret
    • Any major chord is simply a 2/1.5 ratio of notes (and minor is 1.5/2)
    • Hence, when you play any chord on a particular scale, just moving the same chord shape 1 fret  down  takes you to the next scale, but the ratio remains the same ie EM, one fret down becomes F#M and 2 frets down becomes FM. This is called transposition.
    • Note that only the root note needs to be moved and the shape remains the same as the other fingers follow suit and they too are moving 1 fret down each and hence maintaining the 2/1.5 ratio that needs to be maintained for the chord to be a major chord
  • What really are scales
  • Why fret spacing gets smaller
    • The frets don’t actually get smaller they get bigger (wider). The space between the frets gets smaller, because the string vibrates twice as fast when you half its length. This is an octave higher.
  • Note pitches in Guitar
    • The number of vibrations per second is called the frequency which is measured in cycles per second or Hertz (Hz). The pitch of a note is almost entirely determined by the frequency: high frequency for high pitch and low for low. For example,
      • 110 vibrations per second (110 Hz) is the frequency of vibration of the A string on a guitar.
      • The A above that (second fret on the G string) is 220 Hz.
      • The next A (5th fret on the high E string) is 440 Hz, which is the orchestral tuning A.
    • We can hear sounds from about 15 Hz to 20 kHz (1 kHz = 1000 Hz). The lowest note on the standard guitar is E at about 83 Hz
    • The frequency also depends on the length of the string that is free to vibrate. In playing, you change this by holding the string firmly against the fingerboard with a finger of the left hand. Shortening the string (stopping it on a higher fret) gives higher pitch.
      • Note that above, pitch of note A was getting higher as we move to higher frets. This is coz we were shortening the vibrating string. Also, we were simultaneously moving lower ie to thinner, higher pitch strings, which also contributed to higher frequencies of A.
  • How is guitar noise made
    • The strings themselves make hardly any noise: they are thin and slip easily through the air without making much of disturbance – and a sound wave is a disturbance of the air. An electric guitar played without an amplifier makes little noise, and an acoustic guitar would be much quieter without the vibrations of its bridge and body. In an acoustic guitar, the vibration of the string is transferred via the bridge and saddle to the top plate body of the guitar.
    • Remember how the nut is one end of the vibrating length of the string? The bridge is the other, and is where the string meets the body. The bridge on acoustic guitars serves exactly the same purpose – to transfer string vibration to the guitar body. However, acoustic bridges are much simpler. They typically consist of a single piece of wood (e.g. rosewood) and a raised nut-like saddle, over which the strings pass into holes either plugged by bridge pins or fixed within the bridge itself.
    • The body serves to transmit the vibration of the bridge into vibration of the air around it. For this it needs a relatively large surface area so that it can push a reasonable amount of air backwards and forwards. The top plate is made so that it can vibrate up and down relatively easily. It is usually made of spruce or another light, springy wood, about 2.5 mm thick. On the inside of the plate is a series of braces. These strengthen the plate. An important function is to keep the plate flat, despite the action of the strings which tends to make the saddle rotate. The braces also affect the way in which the top plate vibrates.
    • It is worth making it clear that the body doesn’t amplify the sound in the technical sense of amplify. An electronic amplifier takes a signal with small power and, using electrical power from the mains, turns it into a more powerful signal. In an acoustic guitar, all of the sound energy that is produced by the body originally comes from energy put into the string by the guitarists finger. The purpose of the body is to make that conversion process more efficient. In an electric guitar, very little of the energy of the plucked string is converted to sound.
  • Octaves
    • An octave is a ratio of 2:1 and, in equal temperament, an octave comprises 12 equal semitones. Each semitone therefore has a ratio of 21/12 (approximately 1.059). By convention, A4 is often set at 440 Hz. These data were used to calculate the first table below, which gives the frequency of any standard keyboard note or MIDI note number. To convert from any frequency to pitch (i.e. to the nearest note and how far it is out of tune), go to the frequency to note converter.
  • Harmonics and modes
    • The string on a musical instrument is (almost) fixed at both ends, so any vibration of the string must have nodes at each end. Now that limits the possible vibrations. For instance the string with length L could have a standing wave with wavelength twice as long as the string (wavelength λ = 2L) as shown in the first sketch in the next series. This gives a node at either end and an antinode in the middle. This is one of the modes of vibration of the string (“mode of vibration” just means style or way of vibrating).

    • Let’s work out the relationships among the frequencies of these modes. For a wave, the frequency is the ratio of the speed of the wave to the length of the wave: f = v/λ. Compared to the string length L, you can see that these waves have lengths 2L, L, 2L/3, L/2. We could write this as 2L/n, where n is the number of the harmonic.
    • All waves in a string travel with the same speed, so these waves with different wavelengths have different frequencies as shown. The mode with the lowest frequency (f1) is called the fundamental. Note that the nth mode has frequency n times that of the fundamental. All of the modes (and the sounds they produce) are called the harmonics of the string. The frequencies f, 2f, 3f, 4f etc are called the harmonic series.
  • Fretting to increase Pitch
    • guitarists resort to fretting to change a string’s pitch — by shortening its effective vibrating length. They do so by fretting — pushing the string against the fretboard so that it vibrates only between the fingered fret (metal wire) and the bridge.
    • Natural frets are raised up from the face of the fretboard in order to separate the neck into different semi-tonal intervals. This basically means that each fret indicates a different note. Frets are numbered just like the strings are.
  • Modes of a Scale
    • You can form seven modes from the major scale by using the same set of notes as the major scale, but starting each of the modes on a different note of the scale, and considering this different note to be the root of the scale.

    • The first mode is called the Ionian mode and is actually the same as the major scale itself as it is formed by starting the major scale from the existing root.

    • We can then form the Dorian mode by starting the notes of the major scale from the second degree of the scale.

  • Parts of the Guitar
    • guitar parts diagram showing both acoustic and electric guitar
  • What scale are open chords played in?
  • Chord Scale Relationship
    • Chord scales are harmonized scales played in horizontal fashion across the fretboard.
    • Not only do chord scales expand your understanding of harmony, they provide a new approach to playing over chord changes.

    • By working diatonic chord scales, you always have 7 shapes for each chord you play.

    • With each shape providing a different harmonic color over the underlying chord.

    • This opens up your fretboard and creates new avenues of exploration in your comping, chord soloing, and chord melodies.

    • Chord scales are built by harmonizing any scale or mode across a bass string on the guitar.
  • Identify notes on Fretboard
    • Capture.PNG
    • Acronym to memorise:
      • Vertical: Eddy Ate Dynamite, Good Bye Eddy
      • Horizontal (thickest 2 strings at Dot Position) : G – A B C D E F 
  • MAJOR SCALE VS MINOR PENTATONIC SCALE
  • Psycholinguistics/Language and Music
    • Book of Music is Constructed on
      • Notes as the phonemes
      • Scales (eight different notes in an octave, which then repeats in a higher or lower pitch) as the alphabet
      • Chords as Words
      • Chord Progression as Sentences
    • Logic: Both language and music use a succession of sounds that can be seen as either “right” or “wrong”. There are certain words or sentences in languages that make sense, and others that don’t. The same can be true for music. some note sequences sound good together, while others do not 
  • How to Add Scales to Open Guitar Chords
  • Rhythm Guitar Lessons
    • Power Chords
      • Played using 1-5 pattern ie 3 of every chord is left out
      • Index finger is always reserved for the root chord and root note is always played on the 6th or 5th string.
      • 3rd finger position trick is it’s always 2 across and one down from index finger…In notes terms, jumping from note 1 to 5 is always like this on the fretboard
      • Strum only the strings that have the fingers on them
      • Another version of G power chord is to double up on G ie add pinky on octave of 1st G, right below the 3rd finger or flatten the 3rd finger to cover both strings.
      • Note that 6th and 5th string power chords are combined to play progressions easily without too much jumping around Eg. To Play G C D power chord progression, we’ll have to move from 3rd to 10th fret for G to C, but instead, we can just move to 5th string and find D right below G and don’t have to move any frets at all, and then move 2 fret down the 5th string from C to play D
    • Bar Chords
      • Can be moved all across the fret board like the power chords
      • Bar Making Tips:
        • Technically the bar needs to cover only the strings that other fingers don’t cover, but it’s best if it covers the whole fret all the time. 
        • Tilt index finger on the fret to make the bar. It’s easier with edge of finger than with center.
        • Make a clamp ie a capo style clamp with thumb and index finger to form the bar
        • Keep index finger straight and not tilted
        • Strum to make sure bar is clean  across all frets…Practice this repeatedly to build strength and dexterity in index finger
      • Shape
        • Shape and bar should go down at the same time
      • Root note on 6th/5th string gives the bar chord it’s name
        • Eg. Bar on 3rd fret with E shape will be G Major and on 5th will make it A Major
        • Note that if root is on 5th string, then bar should be till 5th only and 6th string shouldn’t be strummed
      • Major Bar chords shapes
        • EM shape
          • Uses the EM open string shape with 1 finger down to free index finger for bar
        • AM Shape
          • Uses the AM open string shape
      • Minor Bar Chord Shapes
        • Am shape
          • same as AM shape except the pinky has to go down 1 fret
          • To do this, the finger shapes will have to be changed and all fingers will move 1 back
          • Another way to memorise it is that it’s the same as EM shape with all 3 fingers moved 1 string down 
        • Em shape
          • Take the middle finger off of the EM shape
          • Put middle finger on the bar to help press down the bar
      • Bar Chord Naming convention
        • Formula: <M/m> bar chord with <A/E> shape
          • Eg. “EM bar chord with A shape”,
            • if bar is on E note (on 5th or 6th string)
            • and shape is AM
          • Eg. “Em bar chord with A shape”,
            • if bar is on E note (on 5th or 6th string)
            • and shape is Am
    • Common Chord Progressions
      • Key of G ie G is root note ie scale is G A B C D E F# ie
        • G C D are M
        • A B E are m
      • We’re playing all Bar chords here
      • Progressions 
        • 1 4 5
        • 1 5 6 4
        • 2 5 1
      • Learning/Playing Tips
        • lower case a/e and A/E are the shapes and they’re chosen per convenience of hand movement during chord change 
        • The 5/6 root string is also chosen per convenience
        • Case of shape denotes M or m for the chord
        • Summary:
          • 1 4 5 : G6E C5A D5A
          • 1 5 6 4: G6E D5A E5a C5A
          • 2 5 1: A5e D5A G6E
      • Advantage of playing progressions with Bar Chords is that COZ Bar Chords are Movable, the Progressions become Movable across Scales too
        • For instance, to move 1 4 5 from Key of G to Key of A, all we have to do is to move each chord in the progression 2 frets down as G to A distance is 2 frets ie 1 step AND the shape remains the same (as shape was chosen for hand convenience which is independent of the bar which is all that’s changing here)
          • in Key of G: 1 4 5 : G6E C5A D5A
          • in Key of A: 1 4 5 : A6E D5A E5A
    • Open Chords
      • Bar and Open Chords often go by the same name but they sound different
      • Bar and Open Chords are played on different locations of the fret board as well
      • Common Open Chords
        • AM
        • Am
        • B
        • CM
        • DM
        • EM
        • Em
        • F
        • GM
      • NOTE: F and B are Bar Chords only 
      •  
    • Strumming Patterns
      • Tips
        • Relax
        • Strum with wrist, not elbow
        • Flick the fingers 
        • Count the beat in numbers
      • Patterns
        • Basic 8 note strumming pattern
          • In any beat/pulse ie 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8, each 1-2 interval is a quarter note
          • We can double this pulse by adding “AND” ie 1 and 2 and 3 ….
        • Upstroke
          • Not all strings have to be hit on upstroke
          • Upstroke volume should match that of the downstroke and not be more or less
        • Beats in Strumming
          • Strumming always happens along the beat and the speed of the beat is upto us, eg. 90 BPM or 120 BPM etc.
          • Beats are counted as 1 AND 2 AND 3 AND ….
          • Downstroke ALWAYS happens on the beat
          • Upstroke ALWAYS happens off the beat, on AND 
          • For instance you need to strum DDUUDU
            • First divide this into beats and mark the unplayed hand movements as b for Blank ie only the hand will move, but we won’t strum
            • Hence, this pattern becomes: D b – D U – b U – D U
            • This pattern is spread across 4 beats
        • Accented Picks
          • Accent pics 2 and 4 ie 2 and 4 downstroke
          • Accenting is done by hitting the stroke at a different string while strumming the accented beats
          • This is denoted by > on sheet music
        •  Constant Strumming Technique
          • This denotes the fact that you don’t stop the strumming even if a note/chord is not playing or missed in chord transition when playing a progression
          • Strums can be left out too eg. DDUDDU pattern. Here, the way to strum is to do a silent up after one D.
        • 16 note strumming
          • instead of 1 and 2 and…We do 1 e and a 2 e and a…
          • This way we have 4 syllables to count for each of the 4 strums contained on each beat
    • Developing Timing and Feel
      • Use metronome to develop timing
      • Practice with Drum beat in background
      • 8 note triplets: 3 evenly spaced strums per beat
        • count with 3 syllables in each beat like so: 1 triplet 2 triplet 3 triplet 4 triplet
        • The beats will be: DUD UDP DUD UDU…
      • 16th notes: 4 evenly spaced strums per beat
        • 1 e and a 2 e and a…
    • Dynamic Strumming: 
      • Mixing Picking Notes and Strumming Chords
        • Pick the lowest root note of the chord you’re playing with single base note and mix it with the strum. Let’s denote it by P for picking.
        • Then the strumming pattern will be: PDU PDU
        • This works for all types of chords, bar, open etc
      • Muted Strum
        • Gives a percussive sound to emulate snare drum
        • Mute strum using palm
        • Denoted by M
        • Eg.
          • Throw muted strum on beats 2 and 4 Eg. DM DM or even PM PM
          • PMU PMU…. or PMU PDU PMU PDU…
  • Lead Guitar Lessons
    • 1.
      Dedicated Finger Concept for playing individual notes
      Have 1 finger designated for every note that appears on any fret Eg. in GM scale, the index finger will get all notes of 2nd Fret, 2nd finger gets all notes of 3rd fret, 3rd finger on 4th fret and 4th finger on 5th fret

    • 2.
      Pick strings with minimal motion required and not a full stroke like when strumming
      Return to original position after picking unless you plan to pick next string with upstroke ie alternate picking
      Rest palm on guitar while picking

    • 3.
      Scale Diagram
      Similar to chord diagram, except that it shows the occurrence of all notes of a Scale and their repetitions (different octaves) in the first 5 frets
      To pick notes of any scale, it’s imperative to know where each note occurs on the fretboard.
      The straightforward way to learn notes is just the A to G counting, but even easier way is to remember the fret order as with dedicated finger trick, you’ll be dedicating a finger to each fret

      Let’s start by identifying the notes of GM Scale: G A B C D E F#

      Here’s where each note occurs in <fret> <finger> order:

      6th string
      G 3 2
      A 5 4
      5th string
      B 2 1
      C 3 2
      D 5 4
      4th String
      E 2 1
      F#4 3
      ———— Higher Octave
      G 5 4
      A 1
      B 3
      C 4
      D 2
      E 4
      F# 1
      ———Next Higher Octave
      G 2
      A 4
      Hence we get the finger pattern on all 6 strings starting from 6th as: 24 124 134 134 24 124
      Actually a better way to learn is to actually say the notes, as then you’ll automatically know that B to C is 1 fret down and so is F# to G, but all other note transitions are 2 frets down. This works perfectly as the notes on all strings start with 1 ie the index finger, so you don’t have to recollect what note each string is tuned to, in order to play the note sequence of the G string

      Another trick to note is that all 4 dedicated fingers should be in the same line ie parallel. and so if the index finger moves down from 6th to 5th sting for the A to B transition, then all other fingers should move down together and hover over the 5th string as well. Also note that this pattern will follow for other scales too except the root will shift and so will other notes. So playing the same pattern 2 frets down from the above GM scale would become AM scale
    • ALSO, for the sting picking of the scales in order, just follow the up-down picking trick whereby, pick subsequent notes with up and down stroke instead of all down strokes:
      • G – U6   ( ie Up Stroke on 6th String )
      • A – D6
      • B – D5
      • C – U5
      • D – D5
      • E – D4
      • F – U4
      • G – D4
    • 4. Major Pentatonic Scale
      • Take 2 notes out of each scale gives us it’s Pentatonic Scale.
      • Leave out 4 and 7 notes
      • only 2 note per string will be left in playing pattern: 24 14 14 13 24 24 
      • Mute the strings you’re not playing in any of these ways: 
        • With Picking Hand
          • Mute lower  non playing strings with the 3 free fingers on the picking hand, 
          • Mute top strings (Low E ie 6th string , 5th sting etc.) with palm when they’re not getting picked
        • With Fretting Hand
          • When hitting any note, touch the below string as well with the note’s finger to make sure it doesn’t ring
    • 5. Minor Pentatonic Scale
      • Have 1 finger each dedicated to 3 to 6th fret
      • Play in this pattern: 14 13 13 13 14 14
    • Bending Guitar Strings
    • Use Vibrato
      • Refers to the guitarist’s signature like a singer’s vibrato. This way you’ll instantly be able to identify the guitarist from any tune Eg. BB King 
      • One way to create your unique guitar vibrato is to bend strings repeatedly in your unique style/pattern, width and speed.
    • Legato Technique
      • Hammer-Ons
        • Hammer on the next note on top of currently playing note
        • use when ascending the scale
      • Pull-Offs
        • Pick the next note on the fretboard itself by pulling it down
        • use when descending down the scale
    • Solo
      • Have a theme
      • Have reflections and pauses instead of just playing up and down the scale
      • Have conflicts and resolutions, peaks and valleys
      • Adjust the notes and scales over the chords ie if DM chord is playing, pick notes from the DM Pentatonic scale.
    • Play a Solo
    • More shapes for pentatonic scale
      • In  simple scale, we see it’s repeated in 2 octaves starting from it’s 1st root  note position on 6th string
      • Then in the 2nd root note on 6tth string beyond 8th Fret, you can play the scale again
  • Next Steps
    • Learn to play lead over a 12 bar blues progression
      • Learn the blues theory and blues scale
    • Play over Jam Tracks
  • Root V Base Note
    • bass note is simply the lowest sounding note in a chord. The root note is the tonic note of the chord, meaning it’s the 1st note of the scale upon which the chord is built. If, you are playing some kind of A chord, then the root note is A. And they often are the same note for a lot of basic open & barre chords.
    • The lowest sounding note of a chord could also be a note other than the root. For example, it could be the 3rd, 5th or 7th. When a chord has a bass note other than it’s root note, it is called an inversion.
  • Play Guitar with recorded Drum track in background for better overall music experience 
  • Guitar Tuning Pitch Scientific Notation
    • High E4 is the notation for 1st string
    • Low E2 is the notation for 6th string
    • pitch = frequency
    • An ideal arrangement would want to satisfy the full sonic spectrum of frequencies. That means, you would want to make sure that you have the right instruments covering the right pitch.
    • For example, a bass part will cover low frequencies, a piano, guitar, or synth pad part can cover the middle frequencies, and perhaps a lead synth line can take the main melody that covers the high frequency spectrum.
    • Our ears are tuned to hear things balanced and any unbalance to the sonic spectrum will affect the listener.
    • Pitch can also be used as a way to get a listener’s attention. A lead line with a high pitch would cut through an arrangement much more than a bass line with a low pitch.
  • Hands
    • Fretting Hand
    • Strumming Hand
    • Keep Fingernails short so they don’t dig into the fret board
  • Metronome
    • Use Metronome app on phone for practicing. Best app is metronome by soundbrenner
  • Best apps for playing and learning guitar
    • Learn
      • Yousician
      • Learn Guitar
      • Fretboard Hero
      • Guitar Toolkit
      • Fret Trainer
      • Functional Ear Trainer
      • Good Ear Pro
      • 101 Jass Licks
      • Guitar Pro
      • Justin Guitar Beginners Course
      • Anytune: Learn to play by ear
      • Autochords: Suggest alternate chords
      • Music Memos: Capture and journal new music ideas
      • ChordBank
      • PerfectEar: develop rhythm and tone.
    • Play
      • Ultimate Guitar Tabs and chords
      • Drum Beats
      • Loopz – Best Drum Loops
      • Jam Tracks (these jamming tracks can be searched on youtube as well, but app is better)
      • SingTrue
      • 4 Chords Guitar Karaoke App
      • anytone
      • The Guitar With Songs
      • Guitar!: works as a companion app to Sing! Karaoke

      •  
    • Accesseries
      • GuitarTuna: Tuning and metronome 
      • Polytune: Tune all strings together (PAID)
      • Metronome: metronome by soundbrenner
      • Record: My Guitar App
      • Guitar Simulator: Real Guitar Free
  • Deal with sore fingers
    • Practice consistently
    • Leave the callouses alone. Don’t pick them.
    • Don’t push down too hard. Put min. pressure required to play the chord
    • Get the action on the guitar as low as possible without buzzing
      • The action on guitar is how high the strings are from the fretboard
      • Have a professional set it up
    • Use a lower guage string like 10 or 11 instead of default 12 guage one.
    • Be right behind the fret for best tone with min effort
    • Keep you elbow in and rest it on your left thigh and  guitar sitting on right thigh. Use footstool to bring the guitar up high
  • Classical Guitar vs Acoustic Guitar
    • Acoustic is any guitar that’s not electric, but it’s commonly used to refer to steel string guitars
    • Classical guitar has nylon string. More mellow sound. AKA Spanish/Latin guitar. Smaller body.
    • Same scales, notes and chords in both.
  • Learning Tips
    • Practice the right things and not the wrong techniques as then they’ll get into your subconscious and stay there forever.
    • Have a learning schedule
    • Slow and steady and regular practice
    • Have a purpose driven goal
    • Explore new horizons
  • Improv Playing Tips
  • Playing Songs
    • All of Me
      • Chords: Em C G D Am
      • Strumming Pattern: 3.25 in video DDD for each chord throughout the video
      • Musical Intro
        • ECGD
        • Do it once
      • Verse 1
        • ECGD “what would I do” till “But I’ll be allright” in DD pattern
        • 4.55 
        • Start singing at 2nd strum of Em
        • Lines (each line is covered by one ECGD and hyphen represents chord transition)
          • What would I – do without your smart mouth, – Drawing me -in, – and you kicking me out
          • Got my head spinning, no kidding, I can’t pin you down
          • What’s going on in that beautiful mind
          • I’m on your magical mystery ride
          • And I’m so dizzy, don’t know what hit me, but I’ll be alright
      • Bridge
        • AED from “my head’s under water” till “i’m out of my mind”
      • Chorus
        • GEAD from “coz all of me” to “when i lose i’m winning”
        • ECGD ” coz I give you all of me, and you give me all of you”
      • Verse 2
        • ECGD “how many times”  to “ringing in my head for you”
      • Bridge
        • AED from “my head’s under water” till “i’m out of my mind”
      • Chorus
        • GEAD from “coz all of me” to “when i lose i’m winning”
        • ECGD ” coz I give you all of me, and you give me all of you”
      • Bridge
        • AED from “cards on the” till “though it’s hard”
      • Chorus
        • GEAD from “coz all of me” to “when i lose i’m winning”
      • Outro
        • ECGD ” coz I give you all of me, and you give me all of you”
    • photograph
      • Chords : D Bm A G